Total ankle replacement (also called ankle arthroplasty) is a surgical option for patients with arthritis of the ankle. This operation can relieve pain and maintain motion in the arthritic ankle joint and is an alternative to arthrodesis (ankle fusion) which can relieve pain but eliminates motion in the joint. Ankle arthroplasty has been growing in popularity as the implants available for replacement have improved. The decision to have surgery is primarily based on pain that interferes with activities one usually performs in the course of a day. When this pain cannot be controlled by bracing or medication, it is appropriate to consider surgery.