Hallux Rigidus

Hallux rigidus is a degenerative affecting the joint of the big toe that eventually causes the toe to become rigid, or unmovable. Over time, the toe’s motion decreases due to wear-and-tear that deteriorates the articular cartilage, making it difficult to walk, run, or climb stairs, all of which involve pushing off of the big toe. […]

Hallux Limitus

Hallux limitus, an arthritic condition of the hallux, or big toe, involves stiffness in the joint at the base of the big toe. Abnormal alignment of the first metatarsal bone is usually the cause of the condition that restricts motion. Injury, overuse, and genetics are other reasons for the development of hallux limitus. Symptoms include […]

Haglund’s Deformity

Haglund’s deformity, or “pump bump,” is a hard, bony enlargement on the back of the heel. Also called retrocalcaneal bursitis, Haglund’s deformity causes pain when footwear rubs against the protruding bone growth, irritating and inflaming the surrounding soft tissue. Bursitis can develop as a result of Haglund’s deformity and irritation to the area. Rigid-backed footwear, […]

Gordon Syndrome

Gordon syndrome is a rare, inherited genetic disorder where affected joints remain permanently curved or flexed, restricting normal movement. Gordon syndrome is a distal arthrogryposis, a classification of disorders that involves stiffness and impeded mobility of lower extremity joints in the distal extremities, or knees, ankles, elbows, and wrists. Gordon syndrome can cause the foot […]

Enchondroma

Enchondromas develop in the bone underneath the toenail and are small, benign composed of cartilage. The tumors are composed of cartilage that forms in the bone and are usually painless, which is why they often go undiagnosed unless they are revealed during or screenings done for other diagnoses. Enchondromas that form at the end of […]

Dysplasia

Dysplasia is abnormal cell growth. In the foot, dysplasia results in cartilage overgrowth at the tips of the carpal or tarsal bones that affects the adjacent bone joints. It usually occurs in one limb, not both, which can result in uneven lengths in corresponding limbs. Dysplasia can affect other bones of the leg and hip […]

Club Foot

Clubfoot is a condition where one or both feet are positioned rotating inward or downward in a mild or severe manner. The affected foot may also be smaller than usual, particularly in the heel area. It is usually congenital and may even be visible in an in-utero . Clubfoot does not cause pain and can […]

Mallet Toe

Mallet toe happens when the joint at the tip of the toe remains bent and unable to straighten. The condition, caused by and bone and muscle imbalances, can be painful due to the toe’s down-turned tip rubbing against footwear, which creates pressure on the toe. Formation of on top of the affected toe is common […]

Claw Toe

Claw toe, also called claw foot, is a deformity that causes toes to bend upward or downward from a joint. The bottom part of the toe bends up from the joints at the ball of the foot, whereas the top part or tip of the toe bends down from the middle joints, taking on the […]

Jackson-Weiss Syndrome

Jackson-Weiss syndrome is a rare, genetic disorder that affects males and females alike. The disorder causes foot and skull abnormalities due to over-stimulated bone cell growth. On the feet, Jackson-Weiss syndrome impacts the toes, resulting in unusually large, stubby big toes that point inward, fused toe bones, and webbed skin between the second and third […]